The key factor that determines the relative state of one society versus another, then, is when those societies made the transformation from hunter-gatherers to food producers. He quotes a friend in what is now Papua New Guinea from a conversation inwhen he was studying bird evolution there: XLIV, May 15,p.
In fact, South America had only one - the ancestor of the llama and alpaca - while North America, Australia, and Sub-Saharan Africa had zero between the three of them.
Those societies which domesticated animals eventually developed these diseases. Increasing the difficulty of diffusion were local barriers such as the deserts and dry plains of south-central North America.
To define the differences between developing cultures, Diamond emphasizes the effects of food production, writing, technology, government, and religion. The Americas had difficulty adapting crops domesticated at one latitude for use at other latitudes and, in North America, adapting crops from one side of the Rocky Mountains to the other.
Similarly, Africa was fragmented by its extreme variations in climate from north to south: Diamond really did author Guns, Germs, and Steel for his friends from Papua New Guinea, not for a broader academic audience.
In Africa, too, European imperial troops often of African or Indian origin exploited only a limited and short-lived technical superiority in weaponry that lasted from the late nineteenth to the early twentieth centuries.
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Whether in the Americas, the Pacific islands, Australia, or southern Africa, the first meeting between the natives and European germs was devastating to the native population. Most important of all, human history requires history to be studied on a human scale, so that we can empathise with the past, and see it in the context of our present humanity.
As farmers do the work of providing food, division of labor allows others freedom to pursue other functions, such as mining and literacy. Large societies develop ruling classes and supporting bureaucracieswhich in turn lead to the organization of nation-states and empires.
Thus, in Eurasia there was a trade in plants, animals, and eventually in technology, which was not possible in either the Americas or Africa.
Yali asked, using the local term " cargo " for inventions and manufactured goods, "Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, but we black people had little cargo of our own? Arranca intellectual property research paper child labour essay with subheadings in an essay workplace harassment research paper.
Human history is extremely complex and unpredictable. Smallpoxmeaslesand influenza were the result of close proximity between dense populations of animals and humans. Only after disease had wrought its power were the absurdly small numbers of Europeans able to overcome empires.
As a result, when the scattered branches of the human species were reunited by trans-oceanic voyages and mercantile capitalism afterOld World invaders had a decisive advantage over their New World cousins - the development of guns, germs and steel ensured that Europeans settled the Americas, Oceania and Southern Africa, eliminating or subduing local populations unable to resist them.
Threats posed by immediate neighbours ensured governments that suppressed economic and technological progress soon corrected their mistakes or were outcompeted relatively quickly, whilst the region's leading powers changed over time. Most important of all, human history requires history to be studied on a human scale, so that we can empathise with the past, and see it in the context of our present humanity.
Human inventiveness was essential for the evolution from hunter-gather societies to great food producer empires.
At a time when other popular nonfiction topics centered on personal relationships and diets, Diamond caught the attention of the reading public with a fascinating account of more than 13, years of human evolution and societal development.
Eurasian grains were richer in protein, easier to sow, and easier to store than American maize or tropical bananas. Specifically, they had superior technology and domesticated animals in abundance.
Therefore, none of the many African mammals such as the zebraantelopecape buffaloand African elephant were ever domesticated although some can be tamed, they are not easily bred in captivity. University of Strathclyde Citation: The world of academia today is atomized.
Of the remaining nine, only two the llama and alpaca both of South America are indigenous to a land outside the temperate region of Eurasia. At a typical meeting, one Fayu man spotted the man who had killed his father. This seems an entirely appropriate starting point for a multi-cultural world, and one that is logical for an evolutionary biologist.
Eurasia's large landmass and long east-west distance increased these advantages. Differences among environments resulted in dissimilarities among societies.
Western Europe was among the last areas in Eurasia to domesticate food. In terms of structure, I will first summarize the book's arguments, then critically assess the book's evidentiary base, and conclude with an analysis of how Guns, Germs, and Steel ultimately helps to address the wealth question.
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The effect of plague, especially the Black Death of the fourteenth century, on Asian, European and North African peoples and societies was similar in some respects, as was the impact of smallpox and cholera in east and central Africa in the nineteenth century. The first step towards civilization is the move from nomadic hunter-gatherer to rooted agrarian society.
There may be societal variation in the level of receptiveness to innovation as shown by different responses by non-European peoples to the arrival of European technologies in the nineteenth centurybut this simply demonstrates that, on the grand scale, some societies on all continents would have had equal chances to achieve technological progress if their environments had been equally favourable [p.
Diffusion is the key concept here - some continents and regions were more favourable than others, because of internal or external connections.Jul 19, · “Review of Guns, Germs, and Steel.” Earth First 19 (4): Earth First 19 (4): This article is more summation than critical response, but it provides an easy-to-follow review of the book.
Guns, Germs, and Steel: a Review Essay Guns, Germs, and Steel Episode Guns, Germs and Steel Jared Diamond, author of the Pulitzer Prize Winning, National Best Selling book Guns, This example helps to explain a critical part to answering Yali’s question. The Moari and Moriori lived on islands relatively close to one another.
Guns, Germs, and Steel Essay Guns, Germs, and Steel Review Essay I first read Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel in the Fall based on a recommendation from a friend. Many chapters of the book are truly fascinating, but I had criticisms of the book back then and hold even more now.
This example helps to explain a critical. I first read Jared Diamond's Guns, Germs, and Steel in the Fall based on a recommendation from a friend. Many chapters of the book are truly fascinating, but I 4/4(1). A book seeking to answer such questions would have to add a fourth totem of Western progress to its title and be called, perhaps, Guns, Germs, Steel and Coca-Cola.
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